A Photo-Ethnographic Study, Ancient Life and Research, Delhi, Haryana, Photographic Stories
Comments 39

How i found my Will? And sooner my health. The Kushti world of Ancient Indian Wrestling: A Photographic Essay -II

It was a week later, since that night of inner churning, when I met Sangram Singh again, and for the first time at his one room flat in Delhi. And most interestingly, he was already drinking, since sunrise.

His whole house smelled of tobacco. Lights not brighter than the ones we sat under, in his auto. The green wall behind him wore a Hanuman calendar of the previous year. His eyes swollen, pointed, looking towards me, followed my gaze from the wall to the glass that was kept at the low table beside his bed, rum still left in it. “It’s not good for a wrestler, you know”. He picked up the glass and emptied it in one gulp. When I was young even the smell of this bothered me, but now it’s my nectar. It is this, which makes me feel alive. But Narayan, you look different today, Sangram suddenly getting aware of my presence.

You seem all ready? He said looking at my camera. You wanted to see the wrestling place, right? I smiled slowly. Lets go.

We took the metro to the north campus and there after walked till the place where his akhara* was. Kushti is a form of combat wrestling originated in India, Sangram breaking the silence between us spoke, and the wrestlers practice the sport on mud and by becoming a disciple of the Akhada under a Guru who runs it. Traditionally, Akhadas are places where the Pehelwans live and train along with their Guru to learn the art of wrestling. Even though all this time as I heard him speak i couldn’t let myself but kept judging his every word, as I was not used to walking along with early morning healthy looking drunkards. He kept me amused though, as we neared the wrestling place his excitement grew.

To be truthful If i talk about myself I had no idea about Kushti* before that day arrived and it was him, Sangram Singh who first introduced me to this ancient sport and its importance. Even though it will take a lot of time again for me to experience the sport’s essence, I kept hearing to all whatever passionately kept coming out of his heart.

Kushti is as old as Indian Scriptures are, as our land’s soil is. In ancient times it was known as Mall Yudh. Mall Yuddh has been mentioned in the Ramayana epic, where there is an account of combat wrestling between Bali and Ravana. This depicts that the Indian wrestling sport Kushti has existed in the continent since ancient times. In Mahabharat, the great warrior bheem, Duryodhana, Krishna’s brother Balrama and even his arch rival Jarasandh were known to be great wrestlers.

And ‘Our’ Hanumanji, is regarded as any wrestler’s divine Guru. And not just because of his raw strength or divine powers but for one reason that symbolically teaches us to stay in conduct within one’s soul, to abstain from any sexual activity for life, which in wrestling is regarded as the first duty towards sport and life.

As we entered there was a huge poster of the great gama, I hadn’t known it then but as I moved across the big wrestling arena my eyes kept going towards his photograph, when I asked Sangram, if he is the founder of this akhara. Sangram smiled, as he was on his way to bring something. He brought a glass of milk for me, completed his smile and said he is the guru for all of us. We all know him as the great gama, or rustam-e-hind, noone amongst us has seen him but he was the strongest pehelwan ever known to India in early 20th century, Gama ji was an undefeated champion, the first Indian and it is said that he never, not even once lost a fight in his life. He was known for his extremely disciplined life and eating habits. He lived by the ancient rules and was known to have remained unmarried throughout his life. The Great Gama epitomised this ancient art of Mall Yuddh in pre-independence rural India. He was a living inspiration to all us Pehelwans and thus he is here to keep blessing us with his grace.

From that day Sangram took me to the oldest wrestling places in the city, he introduced me to many a wrestlers, whom I interviewed, made photographs and tried to learn about their diets and discipline. It was a world of pure body conscience that I was not aware of it before that phase of my life. How to become strong, internally and outside i learnt meeting these wrestlers. Like learning about the essence of preparing food than merely eating. It would take the junior disciple wrestlers an hour to two, to prepare a glass of special milk and other organic fluids before they could drink it. And similarly practising with the mud. Even before wrestling, wrestlers used to tend to the mud, giving it the highest respect. 

Kushti is not just a sport in India, rather a part of an ancient culture. And different techniques have been mentioned in many old texts, which are still learned and practiced today. Indian wrestlers who have brought laurels for our country credit all their success to their Akhada training that they did during their initial days. This culture takes us back to our roots and makes us imbibe the essential philosophies of life. A Pehelwan is seen as one of the most humble athletes, living a simple life away from all materialistic pleasure. They are taught to respect the women and protect the weak as their core principles of the Akhada. This cultural heritage that has been in the country since centuries needs to be preserved, supported, and promoted as a part of our rich heritage.

Wrestling, kushti, has ruled the farmlands of India for centuries. And even Before it’s modern form, the ancient Indian fighting style malla-yuddha allowed punches, kicks, head butts, clawing and even biting. It was practiced in small parts of Indian subcontinent at least since the 5th millennium BC, described in the 13th century treatise Malla Purana.

It had the pride of place in the courts of Chalukya kings and Mughal emperors, has led to its own untroubled revolution against the caste system. The British loved it when they first came to India, then rejected it during the freedom struggle. No, wrestling has never been marginal – even if it is largely ignored in modern-day narratives of sport and culture. But even before Pandemic striked, Khushti has been on the decline and now may be even dead.


Two wrestlers fighting on mat, painting circa 1825.

Sangram had left wrestling few years ago even before we met. And even left driving an auto, he took to sitting, opened a shop of daily use items. I met him a few times again after almost a month of interviewing and photographing wrestlers then. But slowly as life took over, we quietly moved on with our lives.

The deadly second wave of Covid-19 took Sangram away last month in May 2021. He died alone. And his death triggered in me a chain of events that lead me to him and all the more towards myself. Towards the last post and this final one. A tribute to him. Because through him the experiences that are living in me, helped me become a man from the boy i was. He was there looking over me just when i had stood for myself, and i then was with him, and through him experiencing this wonderful world of now dying sport.

Pandemic has hit hard and Wrestlers are roaming unemployed, fighting none but wearing suits and becoming security guards, standing all day either night on many a apartment gates. Or trying their luck becoming foot soldiers of the government.

Before I share my days with Sangram visiting many akharas, I remember one incident when he was challenged by an old acquaintance, calling him on the mat. He didn’t waste much time to remove his clothes; entered the arena, bowed down touched the mud with his forehead. And as young wrestlers huddled together standing silently watching their old guru wrestling the new, a ready opponent. He not just defeated him but kept him entangled till he lost almost his breath, leaving him naked, of even his pride.

Later while drinking, sulking within the depths of his own darkness i remember him sharing a moment of his passion sitting on his roof on a full moon night, he had said, ‘When I’m on the mat, I am so filled with this awareness that the slightest touch feels like electricity to my body, and my body reacts to that the same way it would have reacted if I had touched a livewire.”

Wherever his soul is, i pray he rests in peace.

If you like to share your stories or ever feel like saying a hello, please write to me at narayankaudinya@gmail.com

: ँ :

To follow other ethnographical and short stories from rural India, find me at 

narxtara and Road to Nara


Hi, I am Narayan Kaudinya. And i welcome you on this journey, the Road to Nara ! I am an Ethnographer and a practicing Indologist. I did my masters in History and further learnt Sanskrit, Yoga and Nerve-therapy. At 24, pushing most academic sounding, office sitting works away, i felt compelled to know and understand the world and my country, Bharat/India. I travelled, and as it happened i took up teaching in Kashmir and further up in the remote villages of Baltistan in the foothills of Karakoram Ranges. For around three years and many states later there came a time when i felt that it was only while teaching i learnt how to laugh, to see, feel, breathe, love and cry -with children, and mostly resource-less parents in the harshest-freezing border conditions. I write, and work as a documentary photographer and Filmmaker, with numerous published, exhibited and some awarded stories. In my travels and life i have let nature lead me, the divine mother, and as a Yogin, my resolve here is to share my experiences and thoughts as honestly, and through them to blossom in everyone the power and possibility in pursuing your breath, that you seek your true nature with courage and curiosity. Here, on this road i will share my spirit, my love for nature, the elements of life that are us. And in doing so, i'll be happy to see you along.


  1. This is a surprising follow-up. The author, intellectual writing about an ancient sport with more pure physical strength than brainpower, would disagree. The world of wrestling he eloquently describes is interesting but mainly as a historical documentary but this world is too difficult to be interesting for long, although he tries very hard to persuade us. It would be more helpful to give more explanation to the photograph


    • Thank you for writing this review. Would like to know more about the surprise you think it is. And about the photograph(which?) needs explanation.

      Nara x


  2. A very moving article. This thought of the levels at which the pandemic has impacted had never even passed through my head.
    And a sport like kushti is a topic rarely written about.
    Nice one!

    This now makes me think about the kushti akhadas of Mysore and what the pandemic must have brought with it for something that was already struggling to keep its presence.

    Liked by 2 people

    • True Hitha, this time this disease did penetrate our social structure quiet brutally, cruelly.

      Kushti as much it was revered, i am pretty certain is not going to last another few decades as a profession.

      And Kushti akhadas of Mysore and Maharastra are known for their mud quality. And see if you can find any women wrestlers not wrestling anymore or at least now a days, doing something else completely.


  3. Michael Graeme says

    I feel like I’ve been gifted an intimate glimpse of a perhaps vanished world here. I have an interest in martial arts, so can relate in some ways to the ethos you describe. Your account of the decline and then the death of Sangram Singh was very moving, and your writing here is a fine tribute. I think your collection of photographs, old and new, really capture the feel and the atmosphere of Kushti. Before reading this, I was unaware of the sport, but am glad now to know at least a little about it. Thank you.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Delighted to read this review of yours Michael and it gives me happiness too i could share some information of the sport with you.

      This also lead me to your free world. Immense pleasure and looking forward to read and follow coming essays.

      Nara x

      Liked by 1 person

      • Michael Graeme says

        Thank you, Nara. I don’t often comment, but I do always enjoy reading your work.


        • A pleasure to learn about this Michael. I will make sure that as much i enjoy reading your stories, i leave something as a memory for myself too.

          Thanks again dear Michael.
          Nara x


  4. KK says

    This article is interesting one, but for the tragic demise of Sangram. May his soul rest in peace. I belong to Benares, and I had seen wrestlers during my childhood even in my vicinity. Kushti always fascinated me, but with a distance only. I however, wonder why Sangram turned to booze.


    • Kaushal ji thank you for your words. And allowing me into yours. Kashi is dipped with everything raw, even Kushti. I did get to see pehelwans working out near the ghats. It also tells me you don’t live in Benaras anymore?

      Yes Kaushal Ji, there could be many reasons of him turning to booze. Somehow i felt he wasn’t content.

      Thank you for writing Kaushal Ji

      Liked by 1 person

      • KK says

        Thanks for your response. Yes, Narayan ji, though I was born and brought up in Varanasi, I had to leave due to my profession. But I visit once a year even now. (not last year). Thanks again for an absorbing story!!

        Liked by 1 person

  5. This is a great account of your time spent with the pehelwans Narayan! This is a largely unknown world, where discipline and strength reigns supreme. The photos provide a glimpse into the akhadas, which is not seen normally, which your chance association with Sangram Singh provided you.
    The details are immaculately captured. It is sad that this ancient art having roots in the mythologies is dying out.
    I really liked this post, informative and the photo journey provides visuals of an unknown world.


    • Deb, Thank you.

      Yes, i imagine this sport’s popularity was already in decline when this covid arrived. And now when everything is a mess, i don’t see coming generation going for this uncomfortable and touche sport.

      Thank you again. Your presence is always looked forward to.


  6. Simply superb read….not only so much I sight into this ancient sport of wrestling but also a peek into the lives of these wrestlers, their simple living and the fire situation they find themselves in due to the Pandemic. Also heartbreaking to know of the demise of the man who introduced you to all this….


  7. I realize how your fondness for Indian wrestling connects to taking care of your body and mind well in this era of COVID. Sorry to read of your friend’s death from this unforgiving disease.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Yes usfman i would say more than fondness it was respect which i realised through the discipline with which they conducted.

      Also later in my my life i also came in contact with a coach who has been training wrestlers at a sports club.

      But yes India saw an unprecedented sorrows past two months at least or more.


    • Thank you again dear friend, your thought filled reviews gives me a pleasure to write more and gradually understand my own perception too.

      My wishes
      Nara x


  8. This is a very informative and interesting post. It’s unfortunate that this sport is almost dead now. You are lucky to have had first hand experience of wrestlers. And what a learning experience it seems to have been for you. Covid had to take away Sangram, a pehelwan, it really pathetic. May his soul rest in peace. Surely he is in a better place. Thank you for this post, Narayan!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Neel, thank you. Yes. It was already in decline before this covid and now its hard to imagine coming generation giving their time to this strong, uncomfortable and touche sport.

      Always a pleasure to read your words Neel, I hope your tooth ache is gone as i have developed one on my wisdom 🙂

      Nara x


  9. This is a most interesting post! Sorry you lost your friend to Covid-19. The photos are fabulous. This is the first I heard of Indian Wrestling. Thank you for posting.


  10. Its really beautiful yaaaaar .I can see a lot efforts in your description along with images and the whole narration of story is just an amazing .It excites emotions and also makes us more connected while reading .. keep writing Mr. Narayan ..!!


  11. I really enjoyed reading this. It is true that we in India live in different time zones. The respect and love you have for this country and its ancient practices is so apparent in your writings. It is a delightful read. Sad to know about Sangram Singh’s passing away. In the circles that our lives move in, I am sure he will continue his love for Khusti in other worlds.


    • Narayan Tushar Kaudinya says

      YoU yourself know very well Dear Lekha, where this country is coming from, her roots and values and what we consider as our dharma, that world is one family and each and everyone should be prosperous. Imagine, had there been no India, i cannot see if there would be a sane world or man without any kindness at all.

      As i move ahead from these stories, i also learn and understand the tides of time. It is like leaving a part forever. It makes me happy as much as having you along on this journey,

      Hoping that you are well, and would be reading from you sooner.
      Thank you again

      Nara x


      • I agree with what you say though it worries me of being jingoistic…honestly I do feel strongly that as a people we have had many shared experiences that somehow shape us and the world around us.


  12. Narayan Tushar Kaudinya says

    Dearest Lekha, as i was away walking in the Himalayas when i read your words here. It is only now when i am home, i can re-read it while smiling and sharing my thank you.


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